Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Some Major Parts of Industrial Relations in Bangladesh Essay Worker's organization Trade association is an association predicts. It is framed so as to improve the state of laborers in the association and in the public eye and furthermore for aggregate with the board. A made association connects the connection among laborers and laborers and furthermore among laborers and bosses. Worker's guild is an association of laborers framed to advance, secure and improve through aggregate activity, the social, monetary and political interests of its individuals Nature of worker's guilds of Bangladesh: The idea of worker's organization fluctuates from nation to nation on the grounds that the way of thinking, mindset, political circumstance, belief system f worker's organization chiefs and laborers and so on. Change broadly. Worker's organizations are partitioned into various parts. Their stretch crash denies them to join together and The exchanges associations of Bangladesh are exceptionally politicized. They are subjected to various ideological groups. W orker's guilds in Bangladesh are basically change powerless. Worker's organizations accept part in various position related developments just as political developments not identified with their occupations. The pioneers of worker's organizations are a lot of worried about their own narrow minded interests as opposed to the interests Of beneficiary supporters. Our worker's organizations are monetarily and fundamentally differ powerless to confront the assembled quality of their bosses. The pioneers of worker's guilds are despotic in their conduct. Barely they to tune in to the certifiable complaint of laborers. There is a passing of learned association pioneers. Absence of information about work laws makes the pioneers inadequate to protect the interests of laborers visitvisit managers. The general laborers have little confidence in the respectability Of worker's organizations heads. Goal of worker's organization:- To guarantee standard pay rate for laborers To help decide appropriat e working conditions like working hours, leave, social, security and so forth for individuals To guarantee employer stability of the laborers, To ensure the premiums of laborers ibis-a-visit the contributes of the general public. To lessen clashes among laborers and the executives of the associations To guarantee interest of laborers in the benefit of the association. To create work status of the laborers To build self-assurance and class awareness of the laborers so they can work with nobility and abstain from being abused. TO deal with the board through ABA for various issues including laborers interests. To guarantee cooperations Of laborers in dynamic With the board in the association. To expel the monetary inadequacy of the laborers and to shield them from dictatorial mindset Of the board. Worker's organization Structure in Bangladesh: The worker's organizations structure of Bangladesh is looked at of the accompanying three segments: Basic associations: the pioneers of such wor ker's guilds are chosen by the immediate vote of the laborers. There are in excess of 4,000 enlisted fundamental worker's guilds in Bangladesh. A) General worker's organization: Any specialists or representative Of the separate endeavor, sugarless of the employments, can be an individual from this sort of worker's guild. ) Industrial association: this sort Of worker's organizations is shaped by the laborers of a venture having a place with a specific industry like jute industry. Footwear industry, piece of clothing industry and so forth. C) Conflict association: this sort Of association is shaped by the talented laborers of various ventures; every part is gifted in one calling. D) hands on association: industrial association is shaped with those laborers who are legitimately identified with creation. This sort of association helps a conclusive job in labor development. ) clerical association: this kind of association is framed with the businesses/staffs of a venture who are straight forwardly identified with creation f) Reined association: this sort of association is shaped with blue who blue and salaried workers together. The individual from such associations is both creation laborers and office businesses of a similar association. G) CAB association: such associations one dealing operators of laborers. They are chosen by laborers for a clear Industrial alliance: Industrial organizations are shaped with the association of various fundamental associations having a place with a specific industry. Mechanical alliances help understand work related issues of the laborers through conversation with the administration. This sort of organizations of associations jars e ashes of various national and mechanical league. National alliance: national organization go about as co appointments Of subsidiary essential associations and mechanical league. At present numerous national league are joined under are flag called SKIP however numerous organizations have political association for Which the work development can't arrive at the ideal objective. Challenge of R: Emerging patterns and Issues:- Liberalizing has been constrained by globalization. The two wonders have been encouraged by the critical development in world mode and remote direct interest lately and why data innovation which has encouraged quick uncial exchange and change underway and administration areas around the globe. Globalization: there is no arrangement to instigate. The difficulties of globalization the gatherings associated with the business carry on diversely in the new conditions. Significant liberationists: FAD will be inconvenienced and modern base would not be sufficient to support the monetary development tooth nation. Equivocation: It will profit the executives. Be that as it may, the workers must be talented and proficient enough to get by in the business war. Data innovation: Industrialization can be conceivable just through data innovation. It sick assistance to support financial development. Scaling back: Due to expanded rivalry, a few firms have decreased and others have been constrained to cut back their business. Reengineering: it is an inescapable marvel of globalization to keep up cost-adequacy of a firm. Workforce assorted variety: In this season of worldwide contending, representatives any have multidimensional peddler so hello can meet the different needs of the fir, at the period of scarcity. Administration and efficiency development: it is new pattern In the created world and it is turning into a worldwide standard in the creating nation as bevel_ Total quality development: he current market is a buyer advertise and the makers and bound to keep up nature Of their merchandise and ventures according to the desire For buyers. Free progression of labor: that the representative from various of the world Will move to their favored spot to use their peddle and gain their fair levy inescapable in this time of worldwide rivalry. Administrative Obsolescence: to confront the difficulties of regularly changing universe of equ ivalent standard director must make themselves outfitted with the necessary administrative aptitudes for sunning their structures in a financially savvy way. Financial condition and social weight: the worker s the creating nations experience the ill effects of monetary conditions it they lose their employment neglecting to improve their proficiency and profitability. Representative contribution and support:- Typology of structures: there are an assortment of manners by which overcome any issues not least. Through joint comfort and aggregate haggling and these might be separated by hesitance to three constituent components; Method or degree, Direct structures permit representatives to be by and by and really includes in the dynamic procedure, aberrant structures . The keeps an eye on of workers to a moderately inactive job and depend on worker portrayal to carry on the dynamic job of meeting and thinking with the executives for their sake. Level inside the authoritative progression: the procedure would tale be able to put at any level, from the of the representatives quick work circumstance both wide level. Target or extension: the administrative capacity and choices which give the substance Of the participatory procedure might be task focus or force focus. Mechanical guidelines: Withdraw Of co-activity: Withdraw Of delegate from organization. Unn ecessary of the proper methods understanding of any status co arrangements. Nonattendance Of adaptability with respect to representatives and their delegates in the goals of work issues. Work to run: carefully deciphering the obligations indicated in the agreement of business, aggregate understanding, expected set of responsibilities or different standards and requiring exact guidance from the board in regards to the execution of work. Extra time reward: aggregate refusal the work outside typical legally binding long stretches of work, in this manner influencing the job of creation. Go moderate: willing without energy and at a lower switch of execution than ordinary. Strike: brief withdrawal of work and stoppage of work, Work in: possessing the working environment and perhaps proceeding to work however the executives access to or differentiation of the yield. Modern activity process: The legitimate structure: at basic magma a shrike is both a break of the people agreement of business and an aggregate restriction of exchange. But since it tends to be viewed as socially fundamental mechanical activity has been given a level of security by rule law. Exchange debate: exchange question contained in the exchange questions act (1906) any question among businesses and workers or among laborers and laborers, which is associated with the business or non-work or the terms of work, or with the states of work of any individual. Drop The Bomb? (Better Version) EssayNegotiations experience: The other Para additionally recruited to do likewise as the initial segment of dealings. Its called the dealings experience. End: Successful exchange bring about end, Pay: Paeans transitory advantage given to representative tar their work. There in another embodiment to pay and that is called more extensive sense. The scope of monetary advantages given to the representatives for their work. Working course of action: Means the manner in which employments are developed and work are utilized (action that identified with association deeds. Depict/Factory the deciding to pay: (1) Squibb strategy, (2) Cost of living (3) Compatibility (4) Profitability (S) Productivity (6) Gobo. Strategy (7) Trade association. Working game plan: Productivity ba
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Assess Key Developments of the Cold War - Essay Example The race for atomic arms ability commanded the 1950s and 1960s and it prompted strain between these two nations, pressure which meant what is presently known as the Cold War. This paper will assess key improvements of the Cold War from the Truman Administration through the Kennedy Administration. It will examine whether the Cold War was really unavoidable. Also, this paper will think about the household worries in the United States during the 1950s, including McCarthyism, home life, and social liberties. The initial segment of this paper will introduce an outline of the Cold War. Also, significant improvements from TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s to KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s organization will be introduced. Thirdly, the certainty of the Cold War will likewise be talked about. Finally, a general examination and end will be built up. Body Overview The post war period realized a period where the US was beginning to develop as a superpower. It additionally introduced a period where equitable standards were tried with different social equality infringement. Now, the need to maintain these social equality turned into a significant piece of American lives (Chafe, et.al., 2011). At the point when the Second World War finished in 1945, writer George Orwell utilized the term cold war in his exposition Ã¢â¬Å"You and the Atomic bomb.Ã¢â¬ In his article, he accepted that the world was presently in the midst of a danger of an atomic war, one which had the capacity of pulverizing human life on the planet (Orwell, 1945). He talked about how world governmental issues is by all accounts established on a view or conviction winning in a state which was amazing and in a steady condition of cold war with different nations (Orwell, 1945). Such Ã¢â¬Ëcold warÃ¢â¬â¢ was before long seen with RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s disposition towards Britain, including its realm. American financial expert Bernard Baruch was one of the first to allude to such virus war corresponding to the US and the USSR (Gaddis, 2005). Before sufficiently long, the term had a more extensive use, particularly with the arrival of Walter LippmanÃ¢â¬â¢s book Ã¢â¬Å"The Cold War.Ã¢â¬ The USSR has not generally been on perfect relations with its neighbors and with the US, for the most part in view of its communist political stage (Gaddis, 2005). Despite the fact that they were partners during the Second World War, it was just a brief coalition, generally borne out of the requirement for self-safeguarding. When WWII finished notwithstanding, the Soviet Union came back to its strained political relationship with Europe and the US (Gaddis, 2005). The chance of increasing military may over different nations additionally turned into an additional wellspring of strain during the Cold War. Truman to Kennedy In 1947, President Harry Truman was encouraged to consider significant arrangement changes because of RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s endeavors to increase political and military predominance (Chafe, 2003). AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction was to receive a control strategy with the essential objective of forestalling the spread of socialism (Friedman, 2007). TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s approach and choices were completely encapsulated under the Truman precept, a tenet which additionally censured communist and extremist force. The vast majority of Europe was exceptionally strong of TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s teaching, notwithstanding, some European and American socialists being upheld by the KGB clung to the standards which the Soviet Union spread out (Friedman, 2007). In 1947, the US, Britain and France tried to build up an agreement with the USSR on how best to deal with a post-war Germany. The Marshall Plan had the option to build up a working understanding among the nations, in the end isolating Germany and Berlin into four regions to be constrained by each partner (Gaddis, 2005).
Saturday, August 8, 2020
Ops Air Force [by C/4C Adam Fuhrmann 11] Every Air Force ROTC cadet has the opportunity to attend a 3 week base visit called Ops Air Force during the summer after their freshman year. This program is a Professional Development Training (PDT) program designed to give cadets a better view of Air Force life so that they will become better officers in the future. I spent my summer PDT at Dyess AFB in Abilene, TX. Dyess is home to the 7th Bomb Wing with a fleet of B-1B bombers as well as the 317th Airlift group comprised of C-130s. Thirteen other cadets on the visit and I were split up among the different groups throughout the base and shifted around to different squadrons to get a broad view of base operations. I was lucky enough to be assigned to the B-1B Maintenance Group. I was able to get down and dirty in some jets and really get to know the enlisted side of the Air Force which keeps our planes airborne. During my three weeks I had some amazing experiences that few of my friends could ever dream of. I helped repair a damaged B-1 engine, replaced hydraulic components, brakes, tires, indicators, inspected bomb racks and worked on the ejection seats. During the last week I spent my days out on the flight line where I marshaled and launched a B1 and conducted engine tests. In addition to our scheduled work rotations the base also had special activities planned for the cadets while we were there. We are able to get C-130 flights, B1-B simulator flights, Habitat for Humanity project, barbeque with the executive base staff and an Explosive Ordanance Disposal (EOD) demonstration. The other cadets and I had the opportunity to leave the base on nights and weekends: we went paintballing, saw a few movies and had some amazing Texas beef brisket! Even though all of these things sound super cool I feel that the most important thing I took away from my trip was an appreciation for the enlisted troops that Ill one day have the opportunity to lead and how much they contribute to our Air Force. In ROTC, during the school year, we are only exposed to a very small sliver of what the real Air Force is like. The experiences I had working on real projects crucial to our nations defense rejuvenated my enthusiasm in ROTC and I cant wait to continue in the fall! Post Tagged #ROTC
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany Luigi Zavala Ms. Underhill 6 HELA 21 November 2016 Thesis Statement: A dystopian society is an imbalance between the government and the people and how their choices affect the society in a bad way; Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Nazi Germany is a very good example of a dystopian society. By analyzing Nazi Germany and HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s tyranny, one can notice AdolfÃ¢â¬â¢s changes in Germany, his impacts on people, and how the genres of literature can be taught through dystopia. Outline Introductory Paragraph with thesis Changes Adolf Hitler made Took over the government Started World War II Castigated Jews Impacts on the people Followed by Germans Conquered many countries Killed millions Genres of literature as educational tools Novel Autobiography Historical nonfiction Closing Dystopian societies are in the real world today and have been before. Many of them can vary in severity but all of them are terrible. A dystopian society is an imbalance between the government and the people and how their choices affect the society in a bad way; Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Nazi Germany is a very good example of a dystopian society. By analyzing Nazi Germany and HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s tyranny, one can notice AdolfÃ¢â¬â¢s changes in Germany, his impacts on people, and how the genres of literature can be taught through dystopia. Hitler took over GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s government, and he had changed Germany very dramatically in bad and good ways. Because the Nazi party was one of the biggestShow MoreRelatedBrave New World By Aldous Huxley1778 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesconsidered of lesser value to society than those who spend their time consuming. On the Savage Reservation, JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s mother Linda teaches him to read, making them the only two literate members of this society. John is ridiculed and even abused by his peers for having this skill, but in his eyes he is superior to them. The conditioning to steer oneself away from intellectual pursuits is a tool used by the leaders of this Ã¢â¬Å"utopianÃ¢â¬ society to further separate the common people from Ã¢â¬Å"the expertsÃ¢â¬ . This conceptRead MoreThe Rise And Fall Of Communism1843 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThis quote is one of the most famous political slogans excerpted from the book Communist Manifesto, which was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It de monstrates MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion on social classism and how he is against it by stating the imbalance between the working class and the ruling class. The quote ends with a rallying cry and call for the unity of all workers to rebel and demand for their own rights. The book Communist Manifesto is based on the idea of socialist theory. According to theRead MoreThe Social Structures Of A Destroyed World Essay2212 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesway to cope and survive the destruction of their norm. In the event of total destruction, people are known to act differently because of fear and confusion. The psychology of human behavior switches from empathic to aggressive. Because human share the trait of fear, they are triggered to react erratically as a way to adjust to the situation. In this case, the situation being the post-apocalypse, everyday society will not react the same way in a post-apocalyptic world as they would in normalcy. In additionRead MoreSexuality in Literature Essay2653 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesand is male and female sexuality really distinguishable. People have always been having sex; for reproduction and for pleasure. Even though it is a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s and a manÃ¢â¬â¢s rightful claim to this intercourse women tend to feel as if sexuality is against them. This would also be contingent on the type on society one lives in. In some societies the mere topic of sex is tabooed and the subject is not confronted with clarity, meanwhile in other societies it is encoura ged, praised, and advocated to speak aboutRead More Human Rights Violations of Chinas One Child Policy Essay4302 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesAbstract The purpose of this research is to highlight to what extent government policy has violated the human rights of women in China. Government policy is important to the organization of countries. Government policies work to aid in political, economic, and social issues that can become detrimental to the function of a country. Flourishing government policies prove to be efficient and effective when implementation is deemed successful. The One Child Policy proved to be successful in reducingRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. 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Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Othello and the Theme of Revenge Ã¢â¬Å"Killing myself, to die upon a kissÃ¢â¬ . These are OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s last words, as he commits suicide and dies next to his wife. After ironically killing her himself at the end of Act 5. Othello was led to do this by the manipulative Iago. He was just another victim of his revengeful scheme. The play was written in 1608 a time when the Ottoman Empire was at war with the Venetians. Othello is a tragedy because of the deception and betrayal of Iago which causes many people to die. During the times of Shakespeare, racism was a well known. I believe Shakespeare wanted to explore this as one of his main themes in the play, he did this mostly through IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s character, he raciallyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"call up her father, rouse him, make after himÃ¢â¬ . this suggests that Iago is a mean and crude person for wanting to do something like this. The play seems to evolve around Iago in these early stages in the play. Even when Iago speaks to Brabantio, the ton e and the words he uses to describe Othello Ã¢â¬Å"Beast with two backsÃ¢â¬ are very crude and can be very disgusting to listen to. White men were seen as trustworthy, respected people and arrogant, like Iago for example. He is trusted to be telling the truth as what ever he tells Brabantio and Rodrigo, they both believe, showing that Iago was by others as a trust worthy person. However Black men during the times of Shakespeare were abused and seen as unwanted people among their white environment. They were easily mislead, and some were even unaware of the racial abuse only they were suffering and not anyone else. Most are very gullible like Othello. Othello is the only black man in a white society this gives the clue of the theme racism, being explored by Shakespeare. Othello is racially abused by other character, especially Iago. Ã¢â¬Å"I hate the MoorÃ¢â¬ . this is a racist comment made by Iago, who seems to dislike Othello very dearly. Although we are never quite told as to why he hates so much. We are only given clues for his rage with Othello. For exampleShow MoreRelatedExamples of Shakepearian Revenge Tragedey in Othello and tragic Comedy in The Tempest1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA revenge play or revenge tragedy is a form of tragedy which was extremely popular in the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. One of the best-known Shakespearean revenge tragedies is Othello and tragic comedy is The Tempest. One of the most prominently occurring and important aspects of human nature that appears in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s work is the concept of revenge. In most of the tragic plays of Shakespeare, the avenger has his thoughts of commit ting revenge and towards the end causes his own downfall andRead MoreTheme Of Cruelty In Othello720 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmotivation or a major social or political factor. In the play Othello by Shakespeare cruelty functions as a crucial motivation, creating a theme of being careful with who can be trusted because, you never know if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re telling the whole truth. Throughout the play, diction, dramatic irony, and characterization were used to further emphasis the theme. The characterization of Othello contributes to theme in many different ways. Othello is someone who everyone seemed to trust. Ã¢â¬Å"This only is the witchcraftRead MoreThemes Of William Shakespeare s Othello956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdistinguish the workÃ¢â¬â¢s theme over all of the other events and symbols appearing within the piece. Examples of motifs include jealousy, love, disloyalty, and hate. By including such motifs within a writing piece, these topics will become more prominent over others in the story and will act to greatly affect the plot and highlight a possible theme. William Shakespeare uses motifs in order to receive this outcome in his drama Othello. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s drama, motifs such as jealousy, revenge, and ignorance bothRead MoreEssay on The Major Themes in William Shakespeares Othello934 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Major Themes in William Shakespeares Othello Irony and double meaning are the basis and patterns of Othello, in which nothing is what it seems to be; white is black and generally the characters and themes have contradictory aspects. Irony is one of the characteristics of tragedy as the outcome, although inevitable, is unfair. In Act 1 scene 1, Shakespeare sets up the main themes of: jealousy, revenge, xenophobia and racism, love, outward appearance and inwardRead MoreIago in Shakespeares Othello Essay1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesShakespeares Othello is a remarkable tale of trust, deceitfulness, lust and the most destructive of human emotions: vengeance and hatred. Iago better known as Othellos antagonist embodies vengeance and hatred to move an agenda to squash all who oppose Iagos plans. As defined by Merrium-Webster the definition of a protagonist is a principal character in a literary work or a leading actor, character, or participant in a literary work. Othello by Shakespeare is a play about Othello an example ofRead MoreOthello: What You See Is Not What You Get1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIllusion versus reality is an easily recognised theme in the play Othello, written by William Shakespeare. Shakespeare effectively combines illusion with reality in the play, Othello. The illusion easily distorts the reality of the characters and their thoughts and actions. These illusions are evident in the main characters of Iago, Michael Ca ssio and Othello. This review will discuss the illusion versus reality that is seen in the play. Illusion being judgements of an individual from what is seenRead MoreTheme Of Monstrous Jealousy In William Shakespeares Othello1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWilliam ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ , illustrates four of themes in the play. One of the themes is extreme jealousy can make a person act like a monster. In the play, Shakespeare uses Othello, Roderigo, and Iago to prove the theme of Monstrous Jealousy by Othello slapping Desdemona in front of the Public of Venusians calling her cruel names and Developing evil schemes to kill Desdemona at night. Iago tells the lie to Othello about Cassio and Desdemona to and convincing Othello to believe in it. RoderigoRead MoreOthello, The Moor Of Venice, Is One Of The Principal Tragedies1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOthello, the Moor of Venice, is one of the principal tragedies by Shakespeare. This tragedy contains many themes which are i mportant in society today. Many aspects of people s lives have changed, but the way people think is still the same . Shakespeare s Othello wants to underline the psychological and social impact of racism; and the power of manipulation as well as jealousy. These are the most important themes throughout this drama. Othello takes place in Venice, Italy. He was a black generalRead MoreWhy Is Shakespeares Othello Still Relevant in Todays Audiences?940 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhy is ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ still relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s audiences? Ã¢â¬Å"When you begin a journey of revenge, start by digging two graves: one for your enemy, and one for yourself.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Jodi Picoult. Othello is a very well-known Shakespearian text and is still relevant to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s audiences. The themes in Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ are still applicable to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s many audiences; Betrayal is a key theme presented in Othello, and is also still relevantRead MoreThe True Nature of Obsession (Othello, Endless Love and Damoyre)1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages William Shakespeare manifests this idea of an involuntary change in character in the play Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ , and with a similar approach this idea is identified by Scott Spencer in the novel Ã¢â¬Å"Endless LoveÃ¢â¬ and is further explored in Ã¢â¬Å"ObsessionÃ¢â¬ , a poem written by DaMoyre. Throughout each of these texts, the composersÃ¢â¬â¢ use of characterization depicts the true nature of obsession with themes of jealously, revenge and, as a consequence, madness. Amidst the pursuit of an obsession, a person can lose their
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(99) " Dragomir princess to bring her dhampir friend to this highly anticipated, invitation-only dinner\." Sixteen LISSA FOUND ME LATER IN the day. IÃ¢â¬â¢d fallen asleep after Mason left, too dejected to leave the bed. Her slamming of the door jolted me awake. We will write a custom essay sample on Frostbite Chapter 16 or any similar topic only for you Order Now I was happy to see her. I needed to spill about the fumbled thing with Mason, but before I could, I read her feelings. They were as troubled as mine. So, as always, I put her first. Ã¢â¬Å"What happened?Ã¢â¬ She sat on her bed, sinking into the feather duvet, her feelings both furious and sad. Ã¢â¬Å"Christian.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Really?Ã¢â¬ IÃ¢â¬â¢d never known them to fight. They teased each other a lot, but it was hardly the kind of thing that could nearly bring her to tears. Ã¢â¬Å"He found outÃ¢â¬ ¦ I was with Adrian this morning.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, wow,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. That might be a problem.Ã¢â¬ Standing up, I walked over to the dresser and found my brush. Wincing, I stood in front of the gilt-framed mirror and began brushing out the snarls acquired during my nap. She groaned. Ã¢â¬Å"But nothing happened! ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s freaking out over nothing. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t believe he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t trust me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He trusts you. The whole thingÃ¢â¬â¢s just weird, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all.Ã¢â¬ I thought about Dimitri and Tasha. Ã¢â¬Å"Jealousy makes people do and say stupid things.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But nothing happened,Ã¢â¬ she repeated. Ã¢â¬Å"I mean, you were there and- hey, I never found out. What were you doing there?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Adrian sent me a bunch of perfume.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He- you mean that giant box you were carrying?Ã¢â¬ I nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"Whoa.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. I came to return it,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"The question is, what were you doing there?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Just talking,Ã¢â¬ she said. She started to light up, on the verge of telling me something, but then she paused. I felt the thought almost reach the front of her mind and then get shoved back. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a lot to tell you, but first tell me whatÃ¢â¬â¢s up with you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"NothingÃ¢â¬â¢s up with me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever, Rose. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not psychic like you, but I know when youÃ¢â¬â¢re pissed off about something. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve been kind of down since Christmas. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s up?Ã¢â¬ Now wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the time to get into what had happened on Christmas when my mom told me about Tasha and Dimitri. But I did tell Lissa the story about Mason- editing out why I had stopped- and simply driving home how I had. Ã¢â¬Å"WellÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ she said when I finished. Ã¢â¬Å"That was your right.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know. But I kind of led him on. I can see why heÃ¢â¬â¢d be upset.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You guys can probably fix it, though. Go talk to him. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s crazy about you.Ã¢â¬ It was more than miscommunication. Things with Mason and me couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be patched up so easily. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know,Ã¢â¬ I told her. Ã¢â¬Å"Not everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s like you and Christian.Ã¢â¬ Her face darkened. Ã¢â¬Å"Christian. I still canÃ¢â¬â¢t believe heÃ¢â¬â¢s being so stupid about this.Ã¢â¬ I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean to, but I laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"Liss, you guysÃ¢â¬â¢ll kiss and make up in like a day. More than kiss, probably.Ã¢â¬ It slipped out before I could stop it. Her eyes widened. Ã¢â¬Å"You know.Ã¢â¬ She shook her head in exasperation. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course you know.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry,Ã¢â¬ I said. I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t meant to let her know I knew about the sex thing, not until she told me herself. She eyed me. Ã¢â¬Å"How much do you know?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Um, not much,Ã¢â¬ I lied. IÃ¢â¬â¢d finished brushing my hair but began playing with the brushÃ¢â¬â¢s handle in order to avoid her eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"I have got to learn to keep you out of my mind,Ã¢â¬ she muttered. Ã¢â¬Å"Only way I can Ã¢â¬ËtalkÃ¢â¬â¢ to you lately.Ã¢â¬ Another slipup. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s that supposed to mean?Ã¢â¬ she demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing Ã¢â¬ ¦ IÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She was giving me a sharp look. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ ¦ I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. I just feel like we donÃ¢â¬â¢t talk as much anymore.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Takes two to fix that,Ã¢â¬ she said, voice kind again. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re right,Ã¢â¬ I said, not pointing out that two could fix that only if one wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t always with her boyfriend. True, I was guilty in my own way of locking things up- but I had wanted to talk to her a number of times lately. The timing just never seemed to be right- not even now. Ã¢â¬Å"You know, I never thought youÃ¢â¬â¢d be first. Or I guess I never thought IÃ¢â¬â¢d be a senior and still be a virgin.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah,Ã¢â¬ she said dryly. Ã¢â¬Å"Me either.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Hey! WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s that supposed to mean?Ã¢â¬ She grinned, then caught sight of her watch. Her smile fell. Ã¢â¬Å"Ugh. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to go to PriscillaÃ¢â¬â¢s banquet. Christian was supposed to go with me, but heÃ¢â¬â¢s off being an idiotÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ Her eyes focused hopefully on me. Ã¢â¬Å"What? No. Please, Liss. You know how I hate those formal royal things.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, come on,Ã¢â¬ she begged. Ã¢â¬Å"Christian flaked out. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t throw me to the wolves. And didnÃ¢â¬â¢t you just say we needed to talk more?Ã¢â¬ I groaned. Ã¢â¬Å"Besides, when youÃ¢â¬â¢re my guardian, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to do these things all the time.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know,Ã¢â¬ I said darkly. Ã¢â¬Å"I thought I could maybe enjoy my last six months of freedom.Ã¢â¬ But in the end, she conned me into going with her, as weÃ¢â¬â¢d both known she would. We didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much time, and I had to do a rush shower, blow-dry, and makeup job. IÃ¢â¬â¢d brought TashaÃ¢â¬â¢s dress on a whim, and while I still wanted her to suffer horribly for being attracted to Dimitri, I was grateful for her present now. I pulled on the silken material, happy to see the shade of red was just as killer on me as IÃ¢â¬â¢d imagined. It was a long, Asian-style dress with flowers embroidered into the silk. The high neck and long hem covered a lot of skin, but the material clung to me and looked sexy in a different kind of way than showing a lot of skin did. My black eye was practically nonexistent by now. Lissa, as always, looked amazing. She wore a deep purple dress by Johnna Raski, a well-known Moroi designer. It was sleeveless and made of satin. The tiny amethyst-like crystals set into the straps sparkled against her pale skin. She wore her hair up in a loose, artfully styled bun. When we reached the banquet room, we drew a few eyes. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think the royals had expected the Dragomir princess to bring her dhampir friend to this highly anticipated, invitation-only dinner. You read "Frostbite Chapter 16" in category "Essay examples" But hey, LissaÃ¢â¬â¢s invite had said Ã¢â¬Å"and guest.Ã¢â¬ She and I took our places at one of the tables with some royals whose names I promptly forgot. They were happy to ignore me, and I was happy to be ignored. Besides, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t like there werenÃ¢â¬â¢t plenty of other distractions. This room was done all in silver and blue. Midnight blue silk cloths covered the tables, so shiny and smooth that I was terrified to eat on them. Sconces of beeswax candles hung all over the walls, and a fireplace decorated with stained glass crackled away in one corner. The effect was a spectacular panorama of color and light, dizzying to the eye. In the corner, a slim Moroi woman played soft cello music, her face dreamy as she focused on the song. The clinking of crystal wineglasses complemented the stringsÃ¢â¬â¢ low, sweet notes. Dinner was equally amazing. The food was elaborate, but I recognized everything on my plate (china, of course) and liked all of it. No foie gras here. Salmon in a sauce of shiitake mushrooms. A salad with pears and goat cheese. Delicate almond-stuffed pastries for dessert. My only complaint was that the portions were small. The food seemed more like it was there to simply decorate the plates, and I swear, I finished it in ten bites. Moroi might still need food along with their blood, but they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need as much as a human- or, say, a growing dhampir girl- needed. Still, the food alone could have justified me coming along on this venture, I decided. Except, when the meal ended, Lissa told me we couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t leave. Ã¢â¬Å"We have to mingle,Ã¢â¬ she whispered. Mingle? Lissa laughed at my discomfort. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re the social one.Ã¢â¬ It was true. In most circumstances, I was the one who put myself out there and wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t afraid to talk to people. Lissa tended to be shyer. Only, with this group, the tables were turned. This was her element, not mine, and it amazed me to see just how well she could interact with royal high society now. She was perfect, polished and polite. Everyone was eager to talk to her, and she always seemed to know the right thing to say. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t using compulsion, exactly, but she definitely put out an air that drew others to her. I think it might have been an unconscious effect of spirit. Even with the meds, her magical and natural charisma came through. Whereas intense social interactions had once been forced and stressful for her, she now conducted them with ease. I was proud of her. Most of the conversation stayed pretty light: fashion, royal love lives, etc. No one seemed to want to spoil the atmosphere with ugly Strigoi talk. So I clung to her side for the rest of the night. I tried to tell myself it was just practice for the future, when IÃ¢â¬â¢d follow her around like a quiet shadow anyway. The truth was, I just felt too uncomfortable with this group and knew my usual snarky defense mechanisms really werenÃ¢â¬â¢t useful here. Plus, I was painfully aware that I was the only dhampir dinner guest. There were other dhampirs, yes, but they were in formal guardian mode, hovering on the periphery of the room. As Lissa worked the crowd, we drifted over to a small group of Moroi whose voices were growing louder. One of them I recognized. He was the guy from the fight that IÃ¢â¬â¢d helped break up, only this time he wore a striking black tuxedo instead of a swimsuit. He glanced up at our approach, blatantly checked us out, but apparently didnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember me. Ignoring us, he continued on with his argument. Not surprisingly, Moroi protection was the topic. He was the one whoÃ¢â¬â¢d been in favor of Moroi going on the offensive against the Strigoi. Ã¢â¬Å"What part of Ã¢â¬ËsuicideÃ¢â¬â¢ donÃ¢â¬â¢t you understand?Ã¢â¬ asked one of the men standing nearby. He had silvery hair and a bushy mustache. He wore a tux too, but the younger guy looked better in one. Ã¢â¬Å"Moroi training as soldiers will be the end of our race.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not suicide,Ã¢â¬ exclaimed the young guy. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the right thing to do. We have to start looking out for ourselves. Learning to fight and use our magic is our greatest asset, other than the guardians.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, but with the guardians, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t need other assets,Ã¢â¬ said Silver Hair. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve been listening to non-royals. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any guardians of their own, so of course theyÃ¢â¬â¢re scared. But thatÃ¢â¬â¢s no reason to drag us down and put our lives at risk.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then donÃ¢â¬â¢t,Ã¢â¬ said Lissa suddenly. Her voice was soft, but everyone in the little group stopped and looked at her. Ã¢â¬Å"When you talk about Moroi learning how to fight, you make it sound like an all-or-nothing matter. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to fight, then you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to. I completely understand.Ã¢â¬ The man looked slightly mollified. Ã¢â¬Å"But, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s because you can rely on your guardians. A lot of Moroi canÃ¢â¬â¢t. And if they want to learn self-defense, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no reason why they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do it on their own.Ã¢â¬ The younger guy grinned triumphantly at his adversary. Ã¢â¬Å"There, you see?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not that easy,Ã¢â¬ countered Silver Hair. Ã¢â¬Å"If it was just a matter of you crazy people wanting to get yourselves killed, then fine. Go do it. But where are you going to learn all these so-called fighting skills?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll figure the magic out on our own. Guardians will teach us actual physical fighting.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, see? I knew that was where this was going. Even if the rest of us donÃ¢â¬â¢t take part in your suicide mission, you still want to strip us of our guardians to train up your pretend army.Ã¢â¬ The young guy scowled at the word pretend, and I wondered if more fists would fly. Ã¢â¬Å"You owe it to us.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t,Ã¢â¬ said Lissa. Intrigued gazes turned her way again. This time, it was Silver Hair who regarded her triumphantly. The younger guyÃ¢â¬â¢s features flushed with anger. Ã¢â¬Å"Guardians are the best battle resources we have.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They are,Ã¢â¬ she agreed, Ã¢â¬Å"but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give you the right to take them away from their duty.Ã¢â¬ Silver Hair practically glowed. Ã¢â¬Å"Then how are we supposed to learn?Ã¢â¬ demanded the other guy. Ã¢â¬Å"The same way guardians do,Ã¢â¬ Lissa informed him. Ã¢â¬Å"If you want to learn to fight, go to the academies. Form classes and start at the beginning, the same way the novices do. That way, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be taking guardians away from active protection. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a safe environment, and the guardians there specialize in teaching students anyway.Ã¢â¬ She paused thoughtfully. Ã¢â¬Å"You could even start making defense part of the standard curriculum for Moroi students already there.Ã¢â¬ Astonished stares fell on her, mine included. It was such an elegant solution, and everyone else around us realized it. It gave no party 100 percent of its demands, but it met most in a way that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really harm the other side. Pure genius. The other Moroi studied her with wonder and fascination. Suddenly, everyone started talking at once, excited about the idea. They drew Lissa in, and soon there was a passionate conversation going on about her plan. I got shuffled to the edges and decided that was just fine. Then I retreated altogether and sought out a corner near a door. Along the way, I passed a server with a tray of hors dÃ¢â¬â¢oeuvres. Still hungry, I eyed them suspiciously but saw nothing that looked like the foie gras from the other day. I gestured to one that looked like some sort of braised, rare meat. Ã¢â¬Å"Is that goose liver?Ã¢â¬ I asked. She shook her head. Ã¢â¬Å"Sweetbread.Ã¢â¬ That didnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound bad. I reached for it. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s pancreas,Ã¢â¬ said a voice behind me. I jerked back. Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ I squeaked. The waitress took my shock for rejection and moved on. Adrian Ivashkov moved into my line of sight, looking immensely pleased with himself. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you messing with me?Ã¢â¬ I asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËSweetbreadÃ¢â¬â¢ is pancreas?Ã¢â¬ I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know why that shocked me so much. Moroi consumed blood. Why not internal organs? Still, I repressed a shudder. Adrian shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s really good.Ã¢â¬ I shook my head in disgust. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, man. Rich people suck.Ã¢â¬ His amusement continued. Ã¢â¬Å"What are you doing here, little dhampir? Are you following me around?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Of course not,Ã¢â¬ I scoffed. He was dressed to perfection, as always. Ã¢â¬Å"Especially not after all the trouble youÃ¢â¬â¢ve gotten us into.Ã¢â¬ He flashed one of his tantalizing smiles, and despite how much he annoyed me, I again felt that overwhelming urge to be near him. What was up with that? Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know,Ã¢â¬ he teased. He looked perfectly sane now, exhibiting no trace of the weird behavior IÃ¢â¬â¢d witnessed in his room. And yeah, he looked a lot better in a tuxedo than any guy IÃ¢â¬â¢d seen in there so far. Ã¢â¬Å"As many times as we keep seeing each other? This is, what, the fifth time? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s starting to look suspicious. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t worry, though. I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t tell your boyfriend. Either of them.Ã¢â¬ I opened my mouth to protest, then remembered heÃ¢â¬â¢d seen me with Dimitri earlier. I refused to blush. Ã¢â¬Å"I only have one boyfriend. Sort of. Maybe not anymore. And anyway, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing to tell. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t even like you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No?Ã¢â¬ asked Adrian, still smiling. He leaned toward me, like he had a secret to share. Ã¢â¬Å"Then why are you wearing my perfume?Ã¢â¬ This time, I did blush. I took a step back. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m not.Ã¢â¬ He laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course you are. I counted the boxes after you left. Besides, I can smell it on you. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s nice. SharpÃ¢â¬ ¦but still sweet- just like IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure you are deep down inside. And you got it right, you know. Just enough to add an edgeÃ¢â¬ ¦but not enough to drown your own scent.Ã¢â¬ The way he said Ã¢â¬Å"scentÃ¢â¬ made it sound like a dirty word. Royal Moroi might make me uncomfortable, but smartass guys hitting on me didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. I dealt with them on a regular basis. I shook off my shyness and remembered who I was. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey,Ã¢â¬ I said, tossing my hair back. Ã¢â¬Å"I had every right to take one. You offered them. Your mistake is in assuming me taking one means anything. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Except that maybe you should be more careful with where you dump all that money of yours.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ooh, Rose Hathaway is here to play, folks.Ã¢â¬ He paused and took a glass of what looked like champagne from a passing waiter. Ã¢â¬Å"You want one?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t drink.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Right.Ã¢â¬ Adrian handed me a glass anyway, then shooed the waiter away and took a drink of the champagne. I had a feeling it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t his first of the night. Ã¢â¬Å"So. Sounds like our Vasilisa put my dad in his place.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Your Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I glanced back at the group IÃ¢â¬â¢d just left. Silver Hair still stood there, gesticulating wildly. Ã¢â¬Å"That guyÃ¢â¬â¢s your dad?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what my mom says.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You agree with him? About how Moroi fighting would be suicide?Ã¢â¬ Adrian shrugged and took another sip. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t really have an opinion on that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not possible. How can you not feel one way or another?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Dunno. Just not something I think about. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got better things to do.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Like stalk me,Ã¢â¬ I suggested. Ã¢â¬Å"And Lissa.Ã¢â¬ I still wanted to know why sheÃ¢â¬â¢d been in his room. He smiled again. Ã¢â¬Å"I told you, youÃ¢â¬â¢re the one following me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, yeah, I know. Five times- Ã¢â¬ I stopped. Ã¢â¬Å"Five times?Ã¢â¬ He nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"No, itÃ¢â¬â¢s only been four.Ã¢â¬ With my free hand, I ticked them off. Ã¢â¬Å"There was that first night, the night at the spa, then when I came to your room, and now tonight.Ã¢â¬ The smile turned secretive. Ã¢â¬Å"If you say so.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I do say soÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Again, my words trailed off. I had talked to Adrian one other time. Sort of. Ã¢â¬Å"You canÃ¢â¬â¢t mean Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Mean what?Ã¢â¬ A curious, eager expression lit his eyes. It was more hopeful than presumptuous. I swallowed, recalling the dream. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing.Ã¢â¬ Without thinking about it, I took a drink of champagne. Across the room, LissaÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings burned back to me, calm and content. Good. Ã¢â¬Å"Why are you smiling?Ã¢â¬ Adrian asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Because LissaÃ¢â¬â¢s still over there, working that crowd.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No surprise there. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s one of those people who can charm anyone she wants if she tries hard enough. Even people who hate her.Ã¢â¬ I gave him a wry look. Ã¢â¬Å"I feel that way when I talk to you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But you donÃ¢â¬â¢t hate me,Ã¢â¬ he said, finishing the last of his champagne. Ã¢â¬Å"Not really.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like you either.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So you keep saying.Ã¢â¬ He took a step toward me, not threatening, just making the space between us more intimate. Ã¢â¬Å"But I can live with that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Rose!Ã¢â¬ The sharpness of my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s voice cut through the air. A few people within earshot glanced over at us. My mother- all five angry feet of her- stormed up to us. How to cite Frostbite Chapter 16, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Why And How Governments Regulate Natural Monopolies? Answer: Introducation Today, natural monopolies are one of the oldest varieties of the free market economy throughout the world. In Australia, natural monopolies play a significant role in the economy. Mainly, this form of market structure arises due to high fixed and initial costs of setting up and operating in a particular industry (Welker, n.d.). Also, they may arise due to constraints brought about by control over raw materials and technological factors in a given industry. Thus, companies explore the high barriers to entry to create a defensive wall that keeps off competition (Arkani, 2010). Consequently, it blocks potential competition in the market, and acts as the sole seller of a given product. Thus, firms have the power to determine the quantity of a product that is produced and the prices charged for that product (Monopoly, n.d.). In most cases, monopolies limit their production to raise the prices of their goods and services. In this regard, governments regulate natural monopolies in order to protect consumers from exorbitant monopoly prices. Reasons for Regulation Maintain low prices One of the major reasons why governments regulate natural monopolies is to ensure that they maintain low prices. As noted earlier, the monopoly market structure permits firms to set the quantity and price for the goods they produce. As a result, producers have the power to raise their prices higher than they could of they were operating under competitive market structures (Pettinger, 2012). In a perfect competitive structure, prices are determined by forces of supply and demand in the market. Thus, the prices are always at equilibrium. However, in a monopoly market structure, firms manufacture goods at the point where the MR equals their MC, but charge the price determined by the demand curve. In turn, they make supernormal profits at the expense of consumers welfare. Monopoly pricing Source: (Pettinger, 2012) From the graph above, one notes that the prices charged by a natural monopoly is higher than the average total cost incurred in the production of the product. In turn, this results in deadweight loss, thereby leading to a reduction in consumers welfare (Pettinger, n.d.). For this reason, the government steps in and initiates measures that aim at reducing the price level that such firms charge their consumers. Improve efficiency The government also instills measures to regulate monopolies with the aim of improving their level of efficiency. More precisely, the lack of competition in this market may cause firms to be unproductive and wasteful as they are the only firms that can produce a particular product. Often, they have little incentive to improve the quality of the goods and services that they produce. Therefore, the government steps in by creating minimum standards of service and quality of products that the firm must meet. How Governments Regulate Natural Monopolies The government instigates regulatory measures on natural monopolies in various forms. In most cases, the regulation takes the form of price capping, regulation of the quality of service, rate of return policies, and average cost pricing systems, among others. Price Ceiling Notably, price capping is one of the most efficient methods used by the government to regulate the price charged by monopolies for their goods and services. Fundamentally, a price ceiling is where the government sets a maximum price that firms can charge for a particular product. In this case, firms cannot charge a price higher than the designated price. In turn, this helps in regulating the amount that monopolies can charge for their products. Indeed, this way, monopolies are unable to raise their prices, thereby leading to the protection of the welfare of consumers of that product. According to the figure below, the firm would charge consumers a price of Pm if its prices are not regulated. However, when the government sets the price ceiling at the point Pr, the firm is forced to reduce the price it charges to the one set by the government. In this case, the government spares the consumer Pm-Pr that they would have used on buying one unit of the commodity at the monopoly price. It also reduces the deadweight loss associated with monopolies, thereby increasing welfare of consumers. Regulation through creation of a Price Ceiling Source: (Osborne, 1997). Average Cost Pricing The government may also set a policy that requires a monopoly to set its prices equal to the overall costs incurred in producing a particular product. In this case, the price set by the firm is limited to the average costs incurred during the production of the good. Consequently, this reduces the pricing flexibility of a company by ensuring that it cannot obtain supernormal profit margins. Rate of Return Regulation In the same way, the government may use the rate of return on capital invested to regulate monopolies. In this policy, the rate of return on investment is capped and, thus, forces firms to reduce the prices they charge for their commodities. Primarily, the percentage net profit that a firm obtains must be below the amount specified by the government to ensure compliance with the regulation. Primarily, the government considers the size of the monopoly and determines a reasonable level of profit from the capital base. Thus, if the firm is making supernormal profits when compared to its size, it is forced to enforce price reductions on its services and goods. As a result, this protects consumers welfare by ensuring the firm sets optimal prices. Regulatory Bodies Another way for regulating monopolies may involve the creation of regulatory bodies that monitor and control the conduct of natural monopolies. Fundamentally, the regulatory bodies are formed to examine the quality of services and products that are produced by the monopolies and compare them with the predetermined standards (Pettinger, n.d.). They also monitor the prices charged by monopolies for their commodities to ensure that they do not exploit their clients. Furthermore, regulatory bodies investigate claims when it is suspected that monopolies are practicing market segmentation, price fixations, and predatory pricing, and take action against offenders. Consequently, it is worth noting that the setting up of regulatory bodies significantly reduces the incidence of exorbitant pricing by monopolies as well as ensures the production of high quality goods by natural monopolies. Indeed, this mechanism guarantees consumer protection and efficiency of firms. Example In Australia, the government has put in place various regulatory bodies (The Conversation, 2012). For instance, the energy regulatory body is charged with the responsibility of regulating the prices of electricity in the country. In the same way, Office of Rail Regulation, in Australia is the economic and independent safety regulator of the railway monopoly in Britain while OFGEM is charged with the responsibility of overseeing and regulating the gas and electricity market. All in all, all factors taken into consideration, it is important for the government to regulate monopolies in the country. Usually, natural monopolies take advantage of the fact that there is limited competition in their market structure. As a result, they charge high prices for their goods and services. On other occasions, monopolies offer poor quality commodities since they do face any form of competition. What is more, the lack of competition in the market reduces the incentives of monopolies to produce efficiently. For this reason, governments initiate regulatory policies to ensure the capping of prices charged by monopolies, ensure production of high quality products and improve their efficiency. Mainly, this is achieved through the setting of price caps in the form of price ceiling, average cost pricing policies, and rate of return regulations. In addition, the government may establish regulatory bodies to monitor the operations of natural monopolies. In turn, the implementati on of these measures ensures the safeguarding of consumer welfare through reasonable prices and high quality products. References Arkani, G. (2010). Monopoly marketing structure- meaning, features and types. Kaylan City Life. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://kalyan-city.blogspot.co.ke/2010/11/monopoly-market-structure-meaning.html Deregulation is crucial for lowering Australias electricity costs (2012). The Conversation. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://theconversation.com/deregulation-is-crucial-for-lowering-australias-electricity-costs-10625 Monopoly (2012). Economics Online. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Business_economics/Monopoly.html Orsborne, J. M. (1997). Policies to control a monopoly. University of Toronto. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.economics.utoronto.ca/osborne/2x3/tutorial/MONCON.HTM Pettinger, T. (2012). Natural Monopoly. Economics Help. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/glossary/natural-monopoly/ Pettinger, T. Regulation of monopoly.Economics Help. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://www.economicshelp.org/microessays/markets/regulation-monopoly/ Welker, J. Natural Monopoly and the need for Government Regulation. Economics Classroom. Retrieved on 28 Aug 2017, from https://econclassroom.com/?p=3115